Wednesday, July 26, 2006

 

Steiner's four temperaments

Here is a wonderful homeschooling Waldorf site full of info with some specific links re temperaments
http://www.waldorfhomeschoolers.com/temperaments.htm
http://www.waldorfhomeschoolers.com/sick.htm

and another brief one
http://www.waldorfresources.org/readroom/pearls/temperaments.php

I like the body and gait descriptions in this one http://www.openwaldorf.com/temperaments.html
according to this one Emma is Saguine (espcially physically) and melancholic

character types
http://www.uta.fi/FAST/AK11/SPE/ph-poten.html

in depth lecture - to print select text and say print selection
http://wn.rsarchive.org/Lectures/FourTemps/19090304p01.html

Thursday, July 20, 2006

 

online learning by grade and skills

ending punctuation or capital
http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/adventure/grammar2.htm

grammar - is it a noun or a verb
http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/adventure/grammar1.htm
http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0STR/is_4_113/ai_n6126247/print

spelling double the letter or not, change the y to an i or not
http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/adventure/grammar4.htm#

list by grade of web sites
http://www.internet4classrooms.com/skills_1st.htm

spelling word puzzles
http://marilee.us/wdpuzzles.htmls

WOW - reading, spelling, science, social studies, math, art by grade
http://www.harcourtschool.com/index.html

magnetic board
http://www.woodlands-junior.kent.sch.uk/Games/mag/spelling.html

paper dolls
http://marilee.us/paperdolls.html#MyOwnPrintablePaperdolls

word endings and more - not too interactive
http://www.manatee.k12.fl.us/sites/elementary/palmasola/wordendses1.htm

Tuesday, July 18, 2006

 

Making spelling fun

Making spelling fun

Ways for you and your children to enjoy spelling together and so help improve your children's spelling skills.
The English language is spoken by people all over the world but it's not an easy language to spell correctly. There are far too many exceptions to the rules. But there is one rule that has no exceptions - children learn far more quickly and easily if they are enjoying themselves. So the most important thing to bear in mind when helping your child with their spelling is to have fun together.
The National Literacy Strategy identifies the words that children need to be familiar with if they are able to make sense of the books they read. All schools are aware of these words and will focus on them. In addition, nearly every school will give children lists of words to learn to help them become better at spelling. However, many of these words do not follow a regular pattern and others can be easily confused, eg. write and right. Therefore, it's important to find ways of helping children to understand how to spell them accurately.

What you can do as parents
You have a real part to play in supporting the work being done by schools in teaching spelling. Teachers can introduce children to new words and show them how to remember how these words are spelled, but there's only so much time they can spend on this. You can make a difference to your child's spelling by taking the trouble at home to reinforce the work being done in the classroom.
But how do you do this well? Many people will think back to their school days and remember being drilled in rules such as 'i before e except after c' and so on. These rules still have a crucial role to play but they don't give the complete answer. Neither does getting children to memorise lists of words without trying to look for patterns or meanings. What children actually need is to be given a series of strategies that will help them to make sense of spelling. This leaflet gives you some useful ideas and tips that will do just that.
The most important thing to do
Ø Encourage your child to attempt to spell new words and praise their efforts. Don't just point out their mistakes, first tell your child what he or she got right in their attempt, before helping them to make corrections. And never just spell words for them.
Ø Encourage your child to try spelling the word in parts, by breaking it up into syllables and sounding it out. Look for compound words, (eg. flowerpot, newspaper), prefixes (eg. antisocial, unhappy) and root words (bene - beneficial).
Ø As for those school spelling lists, there are two good ways to study them. One is the 'look, spell, see, write, check, write' method. The other is the 'look, say, cover, write, check' method. Both are useful ways of helping your child remember new or difficult words.
`Look, spell, see, write, check, write' method
First, get your child to look at the word and read it aloud. Second, have them spell the word out loud. Now ask them to look carefully at the word, trying to picture it in their mind, and then tell them to close their eyes and 'see' the word. Now have them 'write' the word from memory, check it for accuracy, and write the word two more times. Writing the word down three times helps to fix it in the memory.
`Look, say, cover, write, check' method
Here your child looks at the word and then says it out loud. Then the word is covered and your child writes it down from memory. When they've done this, they check to see if they have spelled the word correctly.
Tips for helping younger children
with their spelling
· Have your child write the words they have to learn in ABC order.
· Give your child some coloured crayons and paper. Tell them that you want to turn their spelling words into beautiful rainbow words. Let them write their spelling words with a crayon. When they have done this, go over each word again using a crayon in another colour. Now go over each word once more with another colour. (Do not use black or brown crayons.) By the time they have made a rainbow word with the different colours, the repetition will have helped them learn how to spell it. A variation of this activity is to write the words with coloured chalk on black paper.
· Write each spelling word on two index cards and play a matching game together.
· Let your child use their finger to write the words on your back and then try to guess what word they have written. Now reverse the process.
· Take turns to write the words in the air and see if you can read what each other has written.
· Have fun together by finding unusual places and ways to write the words. For example, try writing the words in sand, whipped cream, shaving foam, in bubbly bathPlay the 'plasticine writing challenge'. Flatten a piece of plasticine and use a pencil to 'write' a spelling word in it. Now look at the word together and note any patterns, eg. 'might' has a silent 'gh'. After a while, smooth over the plasticine and challenge your child to write the word from memory.
· Encourage your child to draw pictures of their spelling words and to write the word underneath it.
· Give your child a newspaper, magazine or comic and see if they can find their spelling words.
· Cut a picture from a newspaper or a magazine and encourage your child to use their spelling words to write a sentence or story about the picture.
· Make your own flashcards to study and review the spelling words with your child.
Spelling strategies for older children

Colour blends
Have your child write down their spelling words. Ask them to colour all the short vowels yellow, the long vowels blue and all the blends green.
A race against time
Take the role of quizmaster and set your child a time limit for the completion of each of the following activities and award points for each correct answer.
· Write each word five times.
· Write the words in alphabetical order.
· Write the plural of each word.
· Write the opposite of each word.
· Write a sentence using each word. See if your child can write a sentence with two or more spelling words. Award a point for each word he or she uses.
· Finally, cover up the words and test your child to see how many of the words he or she can spell correctly.
MAKING SPELLING FUN page 4
Games
Scramble
When your child has learned their spelling words and is confident they know them, write them down in a scrambled fashion and set your child the challenge of unscrambling them again, eg. denlysud = suddenly.
Crossword puzzles
Work together with your child to create a crossword puzzle using the spelling words.
Word search
Make a word search using the spelling words and ask your child to do the same. When you have both finished making your word search, swap them over and see if you can find the hidden words.
Scrabble
Let your child use Scrabble tiles to spell the words. Then ask them to add up the score for each word. Which word is worth the most points? The least? When you have done this, why not play a proper game of Scrabble? It's an excellent game to play as it really makes you focus on words and how to spell them.
Shannon's game
This game is rather like Hangman except that the letters have to be guessed in sequence, eg.
B---------
Br--------
Bre------
Brea-----
Break----
Breakf---
Breakfa--
Breakfas-
Breakfast
Start by writing the first letter of a word. Then put down dashes to represent the other letters. Let your child have five guesses (or ten if they are not confident) for the next letter. If he or she doesn't guess correctly, put the letter in for them and go on to the next. Continue until the whole word is completed. As an extra prompt for guessing letters, it may help water or on the condensation on a bathroom mirror.your child to have the alphabet written out in front of them. As your child gradually grows in confidence, you can begin to cut down the number of guesses they are allowed.

Word hunt
Give your child a dictionary. Then read out the words they have to learn to spell. Now see how quickly they can find these words in the dictionary.
Challenges
Another good way of engaging your child's interest is to set them a challenge of some kind, which involves them working with letters.
Take a letter
For a real challenge, have your child use the letters of the spelling words to make sentences. For example, the word 'young' could become 'yellow otters understand nuclear gadgets'.
A skeleton story
Explain to your child that the spelling words are going to form the 'skeleton' or framework on which they will construct a story. For example, if they had the following ten words: traveller, storm, castle, dwarf, candle, stairs, bed, shadow, scream, breakfast - they could use them to make up a story like this.
The weary traveller was caught in a terrible storm. Then, in a bright flash of lightning he saw a gloomy castle. He ran to it and knocked on the door. The door creaked open but there was no one there. Then the man looked down and saw a dwarf holding a candle. The creature told the man to follow him and led the way up some rickety stairs. They walked into a small room containing a four-poster bed. Cobwebs covered the pillow but the man was so tired he soon fell into a fitful sleep. Then something woke him. He opened his eyes and saw a huge shadow on the wall. He gave a terrified scream but then saw it was made by the dwarf who said, 'Sorry to disturb you but I forgot to ask what you want for your breakfast.'

How to remember spellings
It is true that we remember what we want to remember. It is also right that practice is vital for memory and that the easiest things to remember are those we have found out for ourselves. So you need to remember these points when helping your children to remember their spellings.
However, it's a fact of life that we tend to remember best the things we have just learned. So don't be surprised or cross if your child forgets how to spell most of the words you worked so hard on together the week before. Just build in some time to look at these words again.

Using mnemonics
An effective way of remembering how to spell words is to use mnemonics. A mnemonic is really a trick that jogs the memory. When your child has a spelling to learn that he or she can't seem to grasp then making up a mnemonic together may be the answer. For instance, if they were struggling with the word 'weight', which does not match the 'i before e except after c' rule, then the mnemonic 'What's the weight of eight people?' might help them. Another mnemonic could take each letter of the word weight and make a simple sentence with them -'Which elephant is going home tonight?' Making up mnemonics with your child is fun and allows them to find enjoyable, creative solutions to remembering hard spellings. Here are some other examples of mnemonics you could use with your child.
· Piece - I would like a piece of pie.
· Believe - Never believe a lie.
· Separate has a rat in it.
· Build - U and I build a house.
· Because - Big elephants can't always understand small elephants.
· Miserable - A miser is always miserable.
· Bicycle - Don't ride your bicycle in icy weather.
· Hear - has an ear in it.


Key things to remember when helping your child with spellings
1 Practice makes perfect.
Practice only makes perfect if you're practising it right. Each time your child spells a word wrongly, they're 'practising' the wrong spelling.

2 Don't try to learn all the words on a spelling list at once.
Even if your child wants to learn them all in one sitting, encourage them to practise a few at a time. Find out what works best for them - it may be one or two words or as many as three or four. Each time they learn another word, go back and practise the ones they've learned before it, because practice makes perfect.

3 Review the words they know.
If your child already knows some of the words on the list, have them practise them once or twice each before you start tackling the ones they don't know yet - it will help boost their confidence.

4 Encourage your child to use the words they've practised.
That's the reason for learning them in the first place. Words learned on their own are soon forgotten. So encourage him or her to keep a notebook containing all the words they've learned to spell. This will be their personal dictionary and they will be more likely to use it than a conventional one. Let your child write sentences and stories using these words. They can look the words up in their notebook to make sure they're still spelling them correctly. Besides, using them is practising them and, as we all know, practice makes perfect.

content from http://www.scotby.cumbria.sch.uk/Early%20Learning/parental%20Advice%20Leaflets/making%20spelling%20fun.doc

Saturday, July 15, 2006

 

new zealand second hand book stores online

http://www.biblio.com/bookseller_search.php?country=36

Ariel Books (Open store)
Located in: Auckland, New Zealand Specializing in: general fiction, General History, Maritime, New Zealand History, Rare and Out of Print, Science FictionSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryArtemis Books
Located in: Hamilton, New Zealand Specializing in: Crime, general fiction, History, Science Fiction and FantasySearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryBook Haven
Located in: Wellington, New Zealand Specializing in: General Reading, New ZealandSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryBOOK.MARK Ltd (Open store)
Located in: Auckland, New Zealand Specializing in: Art, Maori, Maritime, Military, New ZealandSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryBooked
Located in: Auckland,, New Zealand Specializing in: FICTION & NON FICTION ALL SUBJECT AREAS, New Zealand & PacificSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryBooksnPrint
Located in: Invercargill, New Zealand Specializing in: Children, First Editions, health, History, Literature, Military, New Zealand, Out-of-PrintSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryFlashbackbooks
Located in: Cambridge, New Zealand Specializing in: Chidrens & Juvenile Books Pre 1970, novels, Romantic novels, Sports, War StoriesSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryGeralds Emporium
Located in: Lower Hutt, New Zealand Specializing in: Biography, History, Literature, Modern First Editions, New Zealand, TravelSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryHard To Find Books
Located in: Milford, Auckland, New Zealand Specializing in: Art, Aviation, History, Modern First Editions, nautical, Science, WW1, WW2Search or browse this bookseller's inventoryHindsight Books
Located in: Hamilton, New Zealand IDLE HOUR BOOK INN (Open store)
Located in: ROTORUA, New Zealand Specializing in: Fishing & Hunting, Maori History & Culture, New Zealand Fiction, New Zealand HistorySearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryMad Hatter Books
Located in: Auckland, New Zealand Specializing in: Children's BooksSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryMainly Fiction
Located in: Auckland, New Zealand Specializing in: Military Fiction, Modern Firsts, mystery fiction, nautical, New Zealand, romance fictionSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryMarco Worzel Books
Located in: Northland, New Zealand Specializing in: collectable Australasian, old novelsSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryOld & Curious Booksellers
Located in: Auckland, New Zealand Specializing in: Eastern Religions, English Literature, History, New Zealand, PHILOSOPHY, poetry, TheologySearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryrainbow books,art and collectables
Located in: wellington, New Zealand Renaissance Books
Located in: Dunedin, New Zealand Specializing in: Antiquarian, English Literature, Fine and Rare, Maori, Military, New Zealand, Tibet and Central Asia, TravelSearch or browse this bookseller's inventorySeaBreeze Books
Located in: Ashhurst, New Zealand Specializing in: New ZealandSearch or browse this bookseller's inventorySikabooks
Located in: Te Awamutu, New Zealand Specializing in: Antiquarian Children's Books, Autobiography/Biography/Memoirs, Christianity, General Literature & Fiction, Hobbies & Leisure, New Zealand Fiction & Non-Fiction, Out-of-Print & Hard-to-FindSearch or browse this bookseller's inventoryTuatara Books
Located in: Auckland, New Zealand Specializing in: 20th Century Children's Books, Aviation/Military/Naval History, Cricket/Rugby/Golf, Hunting/Fishing, Motoring/Transport, New Zealand/Australia/PacificSearch or browse this bookseller's inventory

Wednesday, July 12, 2006

 

Montessori and Steiner: A Pattern of Reverse Symmetries

Montessori and Steiner: A Pattern of Reverse Symmetries
By Dee Joy Coulter


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This article is reprinted from Holistic Education Review, 39 Pearl St, Brandon, VT 05733-1007 (802) 247-8312. Dr. Dee Joy Coulter is a nationally recognized neuroscience educator. She holds a master's degree in special education from the University of Michigan and a doctorate in neurological studies and holistic education from the University of Northern Colorado. Many of her lectures are available on tape; for information, contact her at Kindling Touch Publications, 4850 Niwot Road, Longmont, CO 80503.


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What a pleasure it was to read the open and tender dialogue between four wonderful Montessori and Waldorf educators (Holistic Education Review, Winter 1990). I have cherished both movements for years. I helped found the Shining Mountain Waldorf School in Boulder, Colorado, and have worked with the Montessori movement during the past five years as well. It has been a delicate business, straddling the fence with these two dear friends. Each kindly granted me an exemption, agreeing to overlook that I was also befriending the other in my spare time. Nonetheless, I rarely saw openings for sharing the wonders of one movement with the other.

For a long time I held each movement in separate compartments in my heart and my head, considering the paradox of how they could both be so sound, so "right" - and so different. Then, one day I was attending a lecture at the Naropa Institute, a Buddhist-inspired college in Boulder that is my third dear friend, and where I love most to teach. Dr. Jeremy Hayward commented that the Buddhists regard wisdom (basic goodness) and skillful means (right action) as the two wings of the dove. All of the Eastern parallels tumbled through my mind then - the feminine and masculine principles, the yin and the yang, and the way each contains the other in seed form.

In that state of mind I thought again about my paradox: How could it be that Montessori and Steiner (founder of the Waldorf Schools) made sense, not as mere halves of what could be a good system if only put together, but as wholes themselves? Suddenly I saw these two inspired leaders and their movements as a pattern of reverse symmetries. I would like to describe some of these patterns here.

Rudolf Steiner began his spiritual activities with the Theosophical Society, eventually breaking away to form his own movement, which he called anthroposophy. Whereas Steiner's affiliation with theosophy occured early in his life, Maria Montessori's happened late in hers. She was visiting in India when World War II broke out and prevented her from returning to Italy. She was interned in Adyar, India, for six years and forced to slow her busy life to the tempo of that Indian city - which just happened to house the international headquarters of the Theosophical Society.

It was also this war experience that drew Montessori to press for peace education above all else. War played a vital role in drawing forth Steiner's vision, too, although it was the aftermath of World War I in his case. Steiner was asked by Emil Molt, owner of the Waldorf Astoria cigarette factory, to devise an approach to education that could serve both the children of the workers and the management, and work toward reuniting a culture torn by war and class differences.

War brought about Steiner's initial invitation to participate in the formalization of an educational philosophy, and it brought to Montessori a deeper spiritualization of work already well underway. Her work in education had begun with children in the Italian ghettos, children who would have been destined to find no niches in society without her dramatic interventions.

There are other reverse symmetries as well. Steiner, a male in a masculine country at the end of a very masculine act of war, was asked to instill the feminine principle of honoring the basic goodness and inner wisdom of the child by reintroducing the arts and reawakening the heart forces. In contrast, Montessori, a female in a feminine country already infused with the arts, offered disenfranchised children the masculine service of enculturation, apprising them of the environmental niches in society and building up skillful means in them so that they could take their place in the society. Whereas Steiner worked to rekindle the imaginations of overly hardened children, Montessori worked to diminish the excessive imaginative life of children who used that realm as an escape from a reality they couldn't grasp. She strove to "normalize" them, to bring their practical activities and their imaginations into proper balance.



Symmetries in Curriculum
Many curricular elements of the two approaches have the same reasonable oppositions as well. Montessori would first introduce the manifested forms of the greatest mathematicians to the children - Platonic solids, Pythagorean geometric forms - and later introduce biographies and the ideas behind the forms. Steiner would ask his teachers to introduce the wonder of sacred number principles, the biographies of the mathematicians, and the spiritual quests of their day before introducing the forms. Waldorf education reintroduces the questions so that the child can personally generate the spiritual quests that led to the answers, and then shows them what the culture has developed. Montessori education invites the child to reverence the answers first, the wonders of human cultural deeds, and then to progress to the seed elements of the finest of our manifested works.
Montessori would have the children discover geographical spaces and their spatial relationships early, to see how geography reveals our cultural interconnectedness. It is not uncommon for Montessori children in the early grades to raise money to preserve Brazilian rain forests, for example. Steiner, on the other hand, would start with the local environment and gradually work outward in spiral to reach astronomy by grade 12, but he would reverse the spiral for history. In history, the child would begin with fairy tales, legends, and myths, then work on through Biblical and ancient recorded history to current events in grade 12. Steiner would pace this historical journey to match the unfolding consciousness of the developing child. The Golden Age of Greece, for example, would be addressed during grade 5, when children are their most sensitive about fairness, and newly able to become a democratic society themselves.

This thread of masculine and feminine voices so arose in the interview in Holistic Education Review. The Montessori voices spoke more of materials, environment, structure, building, play exercise, concepts, specificity, order, and practicality. These words are used to describe our formed world, and to construct out world. The Waldorf voices spoke of delicate processes, essence, aspects, rhythm, feeling elements, context, imagination, and beauty. These words are used to describe our inner life and the artistic nuances of the world as it is. However, each movement is more than a polarity, for each holds the other at its core. Montessori offers the enculturating gesture with the ultimate hope that children so nourished will then go forth able to bring about peace in the world. This is a very feminine goal, calling for inner transformations. Steiner proposed his inner approach with the ultimate hope that the children so nourished would then go forth in freedom to contribute to the further development of the culture. In recent history, this has been largely a masculine activity.

Both of these paths are brilliant, full of compassion, and honoring of the child. And each path has the same obligation that faces every individual in these times. We can no longer afford, nor accept, a gender-based constraint on our ways of service; we must work to bring ourselves into balance in life. Both of these paths are at their best when their practitioners strive to explore the seed qualities within their movement. Montessori spoke eloquently of the spiritual embryo of the child and the spiritual preparation of the teacher. Those teachers would do well to study her later works and include within the clear forms a bit more of the mystery that Maria Montessori also says is important. Conversely, Steiner sought teachers who had rich practical life experiences, to model for children ways to be in the world. Those teachers would do well to step out into the world more often - to see what other schools are doing, what children in other settings are like, how faculties elsewhere work with conflict, and how today's outer science could and would support their spiritual insights.

These actions would be so nourishing for the teachers themselves. When I am with Waldorf teachers, I witness their feeling of isolation and inner exhaustion. For them, a sense of context in the world would be a good tonic. When I am with Montessori teachers, I witness their feeling of overwhelmed compassion for the chaotic conditions of the world. For them, a sense of inner spiritual renewal would be an equally good tonic. One thing is clear. The children need them both. Each brings a high level of love and caring and a path through childhood vitally needed by children today.

 

Common Objections to Homeschooling by John Holt

Common Objections to Homeschooling
By John Holt

People, especially educators, who hear me talk about homeschooling, raise certain objections so often that it is worth answering them here.

1. Since our countries are so large and our people are from so many different kinds of backgrounds (this was said most recently to me by a Canadian) don't we need some kind of social glue to make us stick together, to give us a sense of unity in spite of all our differences, and aren't compulsory public schools the easiest and best places to make this glue?

2. Children in public schools are able to meet, and get to know, many children very different from themselves. If they didn't go to public school, how would this happen?
3. How are we going to prevent parents with narrow and bigoted ideas from passing these on to their children?
4. If you don't send your children to school, how are they going to learn to fit into a mass society?
5. If you don't send children to school, how are they going to be exposed to any values other than the commercial values of a mass society?
6. If children are taught at home, won't they miss the valuable social life of the school?
7. How are we going to prevent children being taught by "unqualified" teachers?
8. How am I going to teach my child six hours a day?
9. How are children going to learn what they need to know?
10. My greatest concern is that I don't want to slant my children's view of life all through "mother-colored " glasses. . .
11. I also wonder if I can have the thoroughness, the follow-through demanded, the patience, and the continuing enthusiasm for the diversity of interests they will undoubtedly have.
12. Most unschoolers seem to live on farms growing their own vegetables (which I'd like) or have unique life-styles in urban areas, and heavy father participation in children's education. What about suburbanites with modern-convenienced homes and fathers who work for a company 10 to 12 hours a day away from home? What differences will this make? Will unschooling work as well?
13. What if the children want to go to school?
14. I'm concerned that someone might be eager to take us to court and take away our children.
15. I don't want to feel I'm sheltering my children or running away from adversity.
16. I value their learning how to handle challenges or problems. . .
17. Will they have the opportunity to overcome or do things that they think they don't want to do?
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1. Since our countries are so large and our people are from so many different kinds of backgrounds (this was said most recently to me by a Canadian) don't we need some kind of social glue to make us stick together, to give us a sense of unity in spite of all our differences, and aren't compulsory public schools the easiest and best places to make this glue?
About needing the glue, he's absolutely right. We do need such a glue, certainly in big diverse countries like the U.S. and Canada, but also in much smaller and more tightly-knit countries, many of whom are also breaking apart under the stresses of modern life.
Right now, the main social glue we seem to have here in the U.S. is hatred of "enemy" countries. Except when briefly united in such hatred, far too many of us see our fellow-citizens, even those of our own color, religion, etc., only as our natural enemies and rightful prey, to do in if we can. Indeed, we insist that this way of looking at other people is actually a virtue, which we name "competition." This outlook may have worked fairly well when our country was young, nearly empty, and rich in natural resources, but not anymore. For our very survival, let alone health and happiness, we need a much stronger and better social glue than this.
Some kinds of community gathering places and activities might help us form this social glue. But not schools - not as long as they also have the job of sorting out the young into winners and losers, and preparing the losers for a lifetime of losing. These two jobs can't be done in the same place at the same time.
People are best able, and perhaps only able, to cross the many barriers of race, class, custom, and belief that divide them when they are able to share experiences that make them feel good. Only from these do they get a stronger sense of their own, and therefore other people's, uniqueness, dignity, and worth. But as long as schools have their present social tasks, they will not be able to give such experiences to most children. In fact, most of what happens in school makes children feel the exact opposite - stupid, incompetent, ashamed. Distrusting and despising themselves, they then try to make themselves feel a little better by finding others whom they can look down on even more - poorer children, children from other races, children who do less well in school.
Even if children do learn in school to despise, fear, and even hate children from other social groups, might they not hate them even more if they did not meet them in school? At least in school they see these other groups as real people. Without school, they would know them only as abstractions, bogeymen. This might sometimes be true, but only of those few children for whom the world outside of school was as dull, painful, humiliating, and threatening as school. Most children who learn without school, or who go only when they want to, grow up with a much stronger sense of their own dignity and worth, and therefore, with much less need to despise and hate others.
The important question, how can people learn to feel a stronger sense of kinship or common humanity with others who are different, is for me best answered by a story about John L. Sullivan, once the heavyweight prize fighting champion of the world. Late one afternoon he and a friend were riding standing up in a crowded New York City streetcar. At one stop, a burly young man got on who had had too much to drink. He swaggered down the center of the car, pushing people out of his way, and as he passed John L., gave him a heavy shove with his shoulder. John L. clutched a strap to keep from falling, but said nothing. As the young man went to the back of the car, John L.'s friend said to him, "Are you going to let him get away with that?." John L. shrugged and said, "Oh, I don't see why not." His friend became very indignant. "You're the heavyweight champion of the world," he said furiously. "You don't have to be so damned polite." To which John L. replied, "The heavyweight champion of the world can afford to be polite."
What we need to pull our countries more together are more people who can afford to be polite, and much more - kind, patient, generous, forgiving, and tolerant, able and willing, not just to stand people different from themselves, but to make an effort to understand them, to see the world through their eyes. These social virtues are not the kind that can be talked or preached or discussed or bribed or threatened into people. They are a kind of surplus, an overflowing, in people who have enough love and respect for themselves and therefore have some left over for others.
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2. Children in public schools are able to meet, and get to know, many children very different from themselves. If they didn't go to public school, how would this happen?
The first part of the answer to this question has to be that it very rarely happens in public schools. Except in very small schools, of which there are few, and which tend to be one-class schools anyway, children in public schools, other than a few top athletes, have very little contact with others different from themselves, and less and less as they rise through the grades. In most large schools the children are tracked, i.e., the college track, the business track, the vocational track. Even within each major track there may be subgroupings. Large schools may often have a half-dozen or more tracks. Students in one track go to one group of classes, students in another track go to others. Very rarely will students from different tracks find themselves in the same class. But - and here is the main point - study after study has shown that these tracks correlate perfectly with family income and social status: the richest or most socially prominent kids in the top track, the next richest in the next, and so on down to the poorest kids in the bottom track.
In theory, children are assigned to these tracks according to their school abilities. In practice, children are put in tracks almost as soon as they enter school, long before they have had time to show what abilities they may have. Once put in a track, few children ever escape from it. A Chicago second grade teacher once told me that in her bottom-track class of poor non-white children were two or three who were exceptionally good at schoolwork. Since they learned, quickly and well, everything she was supposed to be teaching them, she gave them A's. Soon after she had submitted her first grades, the principal called her in, and asked why she had given A's to some of her students. She explained that these children were very bright and had done all the work. He ordered her to lower their grades, saying that if they had been capable of getting A's they wouldn't have been put in the lowest track. But, as she found upon checking, they had been put into this lowest track almost as soon as they had entered school.
Even where the schools do not track children by classes, the teachers are almost certain to track them within their classes. In Freedom and Beyond I gave this example:
An even more horrifying example of the way this discrimination works can be found in the article "Student Social Class and Teacher Expectation: The Self-fulfilling Prophecy in Ghetto Education," by Ray Rist, in the August 1970 issue of the Harvard Educational Review. The kindergarten teacher described, after only eight days of school, and entirely on the basis of appearance, dress, manners, in short, "middle classness", divided her class into three tracks by seating them at three separate tables, which remained fixed for the rest of the year. One of these tables got virtually all of her teaching, attention, and support; the other two were increasingly ignored except when the teacher told them to do something or commented unfavorably on what they did. Worse yet, the children at the favored table were allowed and encouraged to make fun of the children at the other two tables, and to boss them around.
Rist followed these children through three years of school, and reported, first, that these children's first and second grade teachers also tracked by tables within their classes, and secondly, that only one of the children assigned in kindergarten to one of the two bottom tables ever made it later to a favored table. And the odds are very good that most elementary school classes have a kind of caste system in action. Even in small and selective private schools, I found that many of my fellow teachers were quick to label some children "good" and others "bad", often on the basis of appearance, and that children once labeled "bad" found it almost impossible to get that label changed.
Enough has been written about class and racial conflict in schools, above all in high schools, so that I don't want to add much to it here. Where different races are integrated in schools, even after many years, this usually begins to break down around third grade, if not even sooner. From fifth grade on, in their social lives, children are almost completely separated into racial groups, which become more and more hostile as the children grow older. Even in one-race schools, white or nonwhite, there is class separation, class contempt, and class conflict. Few friendships are made across such lines, and the increasing violence in our high schools arises almost entirely from conflicts between such groups.
So the idea that schools mix together in happy groups children from widely differing backgrounds is for the most part simply not true. The question remains, how would children meet other children from different backgrounds if they did not go to school? I don't know. While the numbers of such children remain small, this will be difficult. But as the numbers of such children grow, there will be more places for them to go and more things for them to do that are not based in school. We can certainly hope, and may to some extent be able to arrange, that in these places children from different backgrounds may be more mixed together. Also, people who teach their children at home already tend to think of themselves as something of an extended family, and using the Directory in Growing without Schooling, write each other letters, visit each other when they can, have local meetings, and so on. I hope this will remain true as more working-class and non-white families begin to unschool their children, and it well may; people who feel this kind of affection and trust in their own children tend to feel a strong bond with others who feel the same.
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3. How are we going to prevent parents with narrow and bigoted ideas from passing these on to their children?
The first question we have to answer is, do we have a right to try to prevent it? And even if we think we do, can we?
One of the main differences between a free country and a police state, I always thought, was that in a free country, as long as you obeyed the law, you could believe whatever you liked. Your beliefs were none of the government's business. Far less was it any of the government's business to say that one set of ideas was good and another set bad, or that schools should promote the good and stamp out the bad. Have we given up these principles? And if we haven't, do we really want to? Suppose we decided to give the government the power, through compulsory schools, to promote good ideas and put down bad. To whom would we then give the power to decide which ideas were good and which bad? To legislatures? To state boards of education? To local school boards?
Anyone who thinks seriously about these questions will surely agree that no one in government should have such power. From this it must follow that people have the right not only to believe what they want, but to try to pass their beliefs along to their children. We can't say that some people have this right while others do not. Some will say, but what about people who are prejudiced, bigoted, superstitious? We're surely not going to let people try to make their children believe that some races are superior or that the earth is flat? To which I say, what is the alternative? If we say, as many would like to, that people can tell their children anything they want, as long as it is true, we come back to our first question - who decides what is true? If we agree - as I think and hope we do - that there is no one in government or anywhere else whom we would trust to decide that, then it follows that we can't give schools the right to tell all children that some ideas are true and others are not. Since any school, whether by what it says or what it does, must promote some ideas, it follows that while people who approve of the ideas being taught or promoted in government schools may be glad to send their children there, people who don't approve of those ideas should have some other choice. This is essentially what the U.S. Supreme Court said in Pierce v. Society of Sisters (See Chapter 13).
One of the reasons why growing numbers of people are so passionately opposed to the public schools is that these schools are in fact acting as if someone had explicitly and legally given them the power to promote one set of ideas and to put down others. A fairly small group of people, educational bureaucrats at the state and federal level, who largely control what schools say and do, are more and more using the schools to promote whatever ideas they happen to think will be good for the children, or the country. But we have never formally decided, through any political process, to give the schools such power, far less agreed on what ideas we would like the schools to promote. On the contrary, there is every reason to believe that large majorities of the people strongly dislike many or most of the ideas that most schools promote today.
Even if we all agreed that the schools should try to stamp out narrow and bigoted ideas, we would still have to ask ourselves, does this work? Clearly it doesn't. After all, except for a few rich kids, almost all children in the country have been going to public schools now for several generations. If the schools were as good as they claim at stamping out prejudice, there ought not to be any left. A quick glance at any day's news will show that there is plenty left. In fact, there may well be less support today than ever before for the tolerance and open-mindedness that the schools supposedly promote.
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4. If you don't send your children to school, how are they going to learn to fit into a mass society?
5. If you don't send children to school, how are they going to be exposed to any values other than the commercial values of a mass society?
Educators often ask me these two questions in the same meeting, often within a few minutes of each other. Obviously, they cancel each other out. The schools may in fact be able to prepare children to fit into the mass society, which means, among other things, believing what most people believe and liking what most people like. Or they may be able to help children find a set of values with which they could resist and reject at least many of the values of the mass society. But they certainly can't do both.
It seems to be one of the articles of faith of educators that they, and they alone, hold out to the young a vision of higher things. At meetings, they often talk as if they spent much of their time and energy defending children from the corrupt values of the mass media and the television set. Where, but from us, they say, are children going to hear about good books, Shakespeare, culture? We are the only ones who are thinking about what is good for them; everyone else is just trying to exploit them. The fact is, however, that most schools are far more concerned to have children accept the values of mass society than to help them resist them. When school people hear about people teaching their children at home, they almost always say, "But aren't you afraid that your children are going to grow up to be different, outsiders, misfits, unable to adjust to society?" They take it for granted that in order to live reasonably happily, usefully, and successfully in the world you have to be mostly like most other people.
In any case, the schools' efforts to sell children the higher culture seldom work, since they obviously value it so little themselves. In my introduction to Roland Betts's Acting Out (Boston: Little, Brown, 1978), a frightening account of life in New York City's public schools, I wrote:
Our big city schools are largely populated, and will be increasingly populated, by the children of the non-white poor, the youngest members and victims of a sick subculture of a sick society, obsessed by violence and the media-inspired worship of dominance, luxury, and power. This culture, or more accurately, anticulture, has done more harm to its members and victims, has fragmented, degraded, and corrupted them more than centuries of slavery and the most brutal repression were able to do. Every day this anticulture, in the person of the children, invades the schools. If the schools had a true and humane culture of their own, which they really understood, believed in, cared about, and lived by, as did the First Street School some years ago, they might put up a stiff resistance, might even win some of the children over. But since the culture of the school is only a pale and somewhat more timid and genteel version of the culture of the street outside... nothing changes. Far from being able to woo the children away from greed, envy, and violence, the schools cannot even protect them against each other.
A friend of mine, in his early thirties, is a journalist, generally liberal, and sympathetic to the young. Not long ago, he visited a number of high schools in the affluent suburbs of Los Angeles where he grew up, talking to the students, trying to find out what they seemed most interested in and cared most about. I asked eagerly what he had found. After a silence, he said, "They seem to be mostly interested in money, sex, and drugs." He was clearly as unhappy to say it as I was to hear it. We would both like to have found out that these favored young people wanted to do something to make a better world, as many did fifteen years ago. But we should not be surprised that young people should be most interested in the things that most interest their elders.
Nor is it fair to blame the schools, as many people do, for the interest of the young in these things. Attacked from all sides, the schools say plaintively, "But we didn't invent these values." Quite right; they didn't. What we can and must say is that to whatever extent the schools have tried to combat these values, they have almost totally failed. In any case, to return once more to my first point, they can hardly claim that they are at one and the same time teaching children to accept and also to resist these dominant values of our commercial culture.
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6. If children are taught at home, won't they miss the valuable social life of the school?
If there were no other reason for wanting to keep kids out of school, the social life would be reason enough. In all but a very few of the schools I have taught in, visited, or know anything about, the social life of the children is mean-spirited, competitive, exclusive, status-seeking, snobbish, full of talk about who went to whose birthday party and who got-what Christmas presents and who got how many Valentine cards and who is talking to so-and-so and who is not. Even in the first grade, classes soon divide into leaders (energetic and - often deservedly - popular kids), their bands of followers, and other outsiders who are pointedly excluded from these groups.
I remember my sister saying of one of her children, then five, that she never knew her to do anything really mean or silly until she went away to school - a nice school, by the way, in a nice small town.
Jud Jerome, writer, poet, former professor at Antioch, wrote about his son, Topher, meeting this so-called "social life" in a free school run by a commune:
... Though we were glad he was happy and enjoying himself (in school), we were also sad as we watched him deteriorate from a person into a kid under peer influence in school. It was much like what we saw happening when he was in kindergarten. There are certain kinds of childishness which it seems most people accept as being natural, something children have to go through, something which it is, indeed, a shame to deny them. Silliness, self-indulgence, random rebelliousness, secretiveness, cruelty to other children, clubbishness, addiction to toys, possessions, junk, spending money, purchased entertainment, exploitation of adults to pay attention, take them places, amuse them, do things with them - all these things seem to me quite unnecessary, not "normal" at all (note: except in the sense of being common), and just as disgusting in children as they are in adults. And while they develop as a result of peer influence, I believe this is only, and specifically, because children are thrown together in school and develop these means, as prisoners develop the means of passing dull time and tormenting authorities to cope with an oppressive situation. The richer the families the children come from, the worse these traits seem to be. Two years of school and Topher would probably have regressed two years in emotional development. I am not sure of that, of course, and it was not because of that fear that we pulled him out, but we saw enough of what happened to him in a school situation not to regret pulling him out...
One of our readers gave us a vivid description of what must be a very typical school experience:
My mother tells me that after the first day in kindergarten I told her that I didn't need to go to school anymore because I knew everything already. Great arrogance? Not really. I knew how to be quiet, how to listen to children's stories, and how to sing. I wanted to learn about the adult world, but was restricted to a world which adults believed children wanted. My great pre-school enthusiasm died an early death....
Shame was one of the first lessons that I learned. In the first grade I was told to color a picture of a mother and daughter working in a kitchen. It struck me that if I were to color the entire picture yellow, then it would be different from all the other pictures. When I handed it in to the teacher I expected her to be pleased, if not genuinely excited. She, instead, glared at me for what seemed to be a long time and caused me to feel the deepest shame and self-contempt. . . I was six years old.
Since spontaneity was dangerous - it conflicted with the teacher's view of how children should act - lying was a valuable survival technique. . . In first grade, the class was sent to the kindergarten room to do some work without supervision. I used this opportunity to take a plastic doll and stick the head into a plastic toilet in one of the furnished doll houses in the room. No one was sure who did it, but everyone thought it was amusing - except the teacher. She was red with anger (she was a nun, and working-class Catholic schools in the early 1960s were not the most humane institutions) and I feared a severe beating. Suspicion was eventually focused on me and I lied with complete success, at least for me; another boy was blamed for the incident. I wish that I had said, "Yes, I did it, so what." But I was afraid. . .
Other incidents occurred to other people and were much more serious. I saw a boy of thirteen, seventh grade, try to explain why he did not have an assignment. His crime was that he spoke with indignation. Before he said three words, the teacher stopped him and with a "who-the-hell-do-you-think-you-are" tone of voice called him to the desk and slapped him across the face with a rubber strap, which was about 6 to 8 inches long and 1/4 inch thick. He cried; they always did when it was in the face. He never did get the chance to explain why he did not have the assignment. I'm not so sure that he didn't have it. It may have been that he could not find it quickly enough... This teacher, the principal, was a "textbook" authoritarian. Every violation of her largely unwritten rules would lead her to deliver the same angry statement: "Don't challenge me." She saw challenges in virtually everything - even though we would never have challenged her. I'll just give two of her biggest challenges.
Challenge number one involved misbehavior which the teacher present did not see, but the principal looking into the room did. The fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth grades (it was a small school) were in this room to practice singing. She was furious, talked about challenges, and scolded the student vehemently. Then she proceeded to slap him halfway across the room. She gave him about eight or ten real haymaker slaps. I was standing only a few feet away at the time... One fact about this event showed how much in awe of authority we were: the victim of this violence did not raise his hands to protect his face. When it was over, all I could hear was the boy crying and my own heart beating.
Challenge number two involved the same boy. This time he urinated, or defecated, or both, in his pants. Perhaps he was ill or maybe he had a mental problem. [Author's note: Or perhaps he had merely been denied permission to go to the bathroom, which happens quite often in school.] He didn't do this regularly. He was about twelve years old. Naturally this called for punishment. He was forced to stand in front of each class in the school while the teacher explained to the class his crime. When he came to our classroom the principal named him the school's stinker and told us why. But what I remember most clearly is the pained smile on his face.
There were many incidents of fear and humiliation. Even though there were not many savage beatings, the point is that we lived in an environment where this could happen anytime. And we knew that. I had no clear idea that there was anything wrong with the school; I only had a vague feeling that things didn't have to be the way they were. I wasn't a noble child resisting tyrannical teachers. No, I loved the game of fear and humiliation and played like the masters.
"We can hardly wait to make someone pay for our humiliation, yield to us as we were once made to yield." (Freedom and Beyond, p. 114)
I'm not sure when it started, but in the eighth grade a number of us would terrorize one of the timid boys in the school. We would push the victim around, ridicule him, pull his shirt out, spin him around, dust the chalk erasers on his clothes, mess up his hair, and chase him on the playground. It was easy to be friends with these boys when I was alone with them. But when there was a group of us, the teasing would begin. Since we were always in groups [author's emphasis], the teasing of these boys, two in particular, was nearly unending. On the playground they had to avoid being seen. One of the boys would go home for lunch and not return until the last minute of recess. We did it without thought and it seemed to be only boyish pranks. It was sadism and I found it to be almost irresistible.
We then started to turn on the group members and practice our arts on the selected victim. I remember coming home with sore sides from laughing so hard at another's humiliation, but I felt empty and actually unhappy. The next day I would do it again. This only stopped when I became the victim. It was pure hell. Everyone you knew devoted all his time to your being humiliated. Any one act was insignificant: slapping an unaware student in the back of the head was popular. But it happened all day long in a multitude of ways. Christmas vacation came and one of my prime torturers transferred to another school. Things cooled off for me, but not for the timid boys or the younger children in the school. We almost had serious violence with the male students several years younger than us.
I don't remember the beginning or the end of this sadistic behavior. I know that I didn't act this way before my last two years in grade school or since then.
This reader's experience is surely not unusual. When I was nine, I was in a public elementary school, in a class in which almost all the boys were bigger and older than I was, most of them from working-class Italian or Polish families. One by one, the toughest ones first, then the others, more or less in order of toughness, beat me up at recess, punched me until they knocked me down and/or made me cry. Once a boy had beaten me up, he rarely bothered to do it again. There didn't seem to me to be much malice in it; it was as if this had to be done in order to find my proper place in the class. Finally everyone had beaten me except a boy named Henry. One day the bigger boys hemmed us in and told us that we had to fight to find who was the biggest sissy in the sixth grade. Henry and I said we didn't want to fight. They said if we didn't, they would beat up both of us. So for a while Henry and I circled around, swinging wildly at each other, the bigger boys laughing and urging us on. Nothing happened for some time, until one of my wild swings hit Henry's nose. It began to bleed, Henry began to cry, and so did I. But the bigger boys were satisfied; they declared that Henry was now the official biggest sissy in the class.
A teacher writes:
On Friday I was reading GWS and intrigued with it as usual. I'm especially interested in the "social life" aspect of schools and the damage it causes. This morning I asked my third graders, "Do you feel that in our school kids are nice, kind to each other?"
Out of 22 kids, only two felt that they saw kindness, and the rest felt most kids are mean, call names, hurt feelings, etc. Frankly I was amazed. I have always felt our school is a uniquely friendly place....
When I point out to people that the social life of most schools and classrooms is mean-spirited, status-oriented, competitive, and snobbish, I am always astonished by their response. Not one person of the hundreds with whom I've discussed this has yet said to me that the social life at school is kindly, generous, supporting, democratic, friendly, loving, or good for children. No, without exception, when I condemn the social life of school, people say, "But that's what the children are going to meet in Real Life."
The "peer groups" into which we force children have many other powerful and harmful effects. Every now and then, in the subway or some public place, I see young people, perhaps twelve or thirteen years old, sometimes even as young as ten, smoking cigarettes. It is a comic and pitiful sight. It is also an ordeal. The smoke tastes awful. Children have sensitive taste buds, and that smoke must taste even worse to them than to most nonsmoking adults, which is saying a lot. They have to struggle not to choke, not to cough, maybe even not to get sick. Why do they do it? Because "all the other kids" are doing it, or soon will be, and they have to stay ahead of them, or at least not fall behind. In short, wanting to smoke, or feeling one has to smoke whether one wants to or not, is one of the many fringe benefits of that great "social life" at school that people talk about.
I feel sorry for all the children who think they have to smoke, and even sorrier for any nonsmoking parents who may desperately wish they could persuade them not to. If the children have lived in the peer group long enough to become enslaved to it, addicted to it - we might call them "peer group junkies" - then they are going to smoke, and do anything and everything else the peer group does. If Mom and Pop make a fuss, then they will lie about it and do it behind their backs. The evidence on this is clear. In some age groups, fewer people are smoking. But more children are smoking every year, especially girls, and they start earlier.
The same is true of drinking. We hear more and more about drinking, drunkenness, and alcoholism among the young. Some states have tried in recent years to deal with the problem by raising the minimum drinking age. It doesn't seem to have helped; if anything, the problem only gets worse. One news story sticks in my mind. One night last summer, in a town near Boston, four high school girls, all about sixteen or seventeen, were killed and another seriously injured in an auto accident. Earlier in the evening, they had loaded up their small car with beer and several kinds of liquor and had gone out for an evening of driving and drinking. By the time of the accident, all were drunk. The one survivor was later quoted by the papers as saying, from her bed in the hospital, "I didn't think there was anything wrong with what we were doing; all the kids around here do it."
Of course, children who spend almost all their time in groups of other people their own age, shut out of society's serious work and concerns, with almost no contact with any adults except child-watchers, are going to feel that what "all the other kids" are doing is the right, the best, the only thing to do.
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7. How are we going to prevent children being taught by "unqualified" teachers?
First of all, to know what is meant by "qualified", we have to know what is meant by quality. We could hardly agree on who was or was not a good painter if we did not to a large extent agree on what was or was not a good painting. The question asked above assumes that since educators agree on and understand correctly what is meant by good teaching, they are able to make sound judgments about who is or is not a good teacher. But the fact is that educators do not understand or agree about what makes good teaching. The dismal record of the schools is proof enough of this. Still further proof is that, when charged in court with negligence (see the section "A Doubtful Claim" in Chapter 14), educators defend themselves by saying (with the approval of the courts) that they cannot be judged guilty of not having done what should have been done, because no one knows what should have been done. This may be so. But it clearly follows that people who don't know what should be done can hardly judge who is or is not competent to do it.
In practice, educators who worry about "unqualified" people teaching their own children almost always define "qualified" to mean teachers trained in schools of education and holding teaching certificates. They assume that to teach children involves a host of mysterious skills that can be learned only in schools of education, and that are in fact taught there; that people who have this training teach much better than those who do not; and indeed that people who have not had this training are not competent to teach at all.
None of these assumptions are true.
Human beings have been sharing information and skills, and passing along to their children whatever they knew, for about a million years now. Along the way they have built some very complicated and highly skilled societies. During all those years there were very few teachers in the sense of people whose only work was teaching others what they knew. And until very recently there were no people at all who were trained in teaching, as such. People always understood, sensibly enough, that before you could teach something you had to know it yourself. But only very recently did human beings get the extraordinary notion that in order to be able to teach what you knew you had to spend years being taught how to teach.
To the extent that teaching involves and requires some real skills, these have long been well understood. They are no mystery.
Teaching skills are among the many commonsense things about dealing with other people that - unless we are mistaught - we learn just by living. In any community people have always known that if you wanted to find out how to get somewhere or do something, some people were much better to ask than others. For a long, long time, people who were good at sharing what they knew have realized certain things: (1) to help people learn something, you must first understand what they already know; (2) showing people how to do something is better than telling them, and letting them do it themselves is best of all; (3) you mustn't tell or show too much at once, since people digest new ideas slowly and must feel secure with new skills or knowledge before they are ready for more; (4) you must give people as much time as they want and need to absorb what you have shown or told them; (5) instead of testing their understanding with questions you must let them show how much or how little they understand by the questions they ask you; (6) you must not get impatient or angry when people don't understand; (7) scaring people only blocks learning, and so on. These are clearly not things that one has to spend three years talking about.
And in fact these are not what schools of education talk about. They give very little thought to the act of teaching itself-helping another person find something out, or answering that person's questions. What they spend most of their time doing is preparing their students to work in the strange world of schools - which, in all fairness, is what the students want to find out: how to get a teaching job and keep it. This means learning how to speak the school's language (teeny little ideas blown up into great big words), how to do all the things schools want teachers to do, how to fill out its endless forms and papers, and how to make the endless judgments it likes to make about students. Above all else, education students are taught to think that what they know is extremely important and that they are the only ones who know it.
As for the idea that certified teachers teach better than uncertified, or that uncertified teachers cannot teach at all, there is not a shred of evidence to support it, and a great deal of evidence against it. One indication is that our most selective, demanding, and successful private schools have among their teachers hardly any, if indeed any at all, who went to teacher training schools and got their degrees in education. Few such schools would even consider hiring a teacher who had only such training and such a degree. How does it happen that the richest and most powerful people in the country, the ones most able to choose what they want for their children, so regularly choose not to have them taught by trained and certified teachers? One might almost count it among the major benefits of being rich that you are able to avoid having your children taught by such teachers.
In this connection, the following story from the Philadelphia Inquirer, November 18, 1979, may be of interest:
Between 1978 and 1979, public school enrollment in New Jersey fell 3% from 1.38 million to 1.33 million. But enrollment in private non-parochial schools from 1978 to 1979 rose 8.5%, from 14,000 to 15,200. And, while attendance data for parochial schools is not yet available, indications are that it experienced a similar jump.
... Rev. Peder Bloom, Assistant Headmaster of Doane Academy at St. Mary's Hall, an independent Episcopalian school founded in 1837, sees not only a larger, but a more varied clientele applying.
"Any number" of parents are both working to pay tuition bills, he says, and presently the biggest single occupational parent group is public school administrators [Author's emphasis], according to private school administrators. It used to be doctors; now they are second...
As we will see in Chapter 13, when a district court in Kentucky challenged the state board of education to show evidence that certified teachers were better than uncertified, the board was unable to produce (in the judge's words) "a scintilla of evidence" to that effect. The same thing happened more recently in a Michigan court. It is very unlikely that any other state boards would be able to do so.
In the state of Alaska, hundreds or perhaps thousands of homesteading families live many miles from the nearest town, or even road. The only way they can get in and out of their homes is by plane. Since the state cannot provide schools for these families, or transport their children to and from existing schools, it very sensibly has a correspondence school of its own which mails school materials to these families, who then teach their children at home. Nobody seems to worry very much about whether these families are "qualified", and no one has yet brought forth any evidence that home-taught children in Alaska do less well in their studies than school-taught children, there or in other states. For that matter, many states in the Lower 48 have laws saying that if children live more than so many miles from the nearest school, or bus route to a school, they don't have to go to school. It would be interesting to find out how many such children there are, and what provisions these states make for their education, and how well these children do in their schoolwork.
Perhaps the leading correspondence school for school-aged children is the Calvert Institute of Baltimore, Maryland. It has been in business for a long time, and for all that time most school districts - I know of no exceptions - have been willing to accept a year of study under Calvert as equal to a year of study in school. Indeed, this assurance that Calvert-taught children would not fall behind has been part of what Calvert offered and sold its customers and clients. These have been, for the most part, American families living overseas - missionaries, military or diplomatic people, people working in foreign offices of American firms, etc. A recent Calvert ad said they have had over three hundred thousand customers. Clearly a very large number of parents have taught and are teaching their children at home, without these children falling behind. But very few of these parents can have been certified teachers.
The same must be true of the Home Study Institute, of Washington, DC, which has served mostly, but not exclusively, members of the Seventh-Day Adventist Church. I don't know how many families use or have used their materials, but the quality of the materials I have seen, and the range of courses they offer, suggest that this organization, too, serves a large number of people, few of whom can have been or be certified teachers. Yet again, there is no evidence that the students who learn at home from these materials are failures either in school or later in life.
Years ago I read that one or more inner-city schools had tried the experiment of letting fifth graders teach first graders to read.
They found, first, that the first-graders learned faster than similar first-graders taught by trained teachers, and secondly, that the fifth-graders who were teaching them - many or most of whom had not been good readers themselves - also improved a great deal in their reading. These schools apparently did these experiments in desperation. It is easy to see why they have not been widely repeated. Even in those schools that are willing to allow "paraprofessional" adults, that is, people without teachers' certificates, in their classrooms, the regular teachers almost always insist that these paraprofessionals not be allowed to do any teaching. But poor countries have found in mass literacy programs that almost anyone who can read can teach anyone else who wants to learn.
I found in my own classes, as in others I have since observed where children are allowed to talk to each other and to help each other with schoolwork, that many children were very good at teaching each other. There were many reasons for this. Even though I did my best to convince them that ignorance was no shame, they felt much freer to confess ignorance and confusion to each other than to me, since they knew that they knew little and wrongly thought that I knew almost everything. Also, they did not have to fear that their friends might give them a bad grade. I had told them that I did not believe in grades, and I think they believed me. But they understood, as I did, that this had little to do with reality; both the school and their parents demanded grades, and I had to give them. Some of them, who really liked me, may have feared that after struggling to teach them something I would be disappointed if they didn't learn it. Indeed this was true, and though I tried not to be disappointed or at least not to show that I was, I never really succeeded. They wanted to please me, and knew when they hadn't.
Learning from each other, they didn't have to worry about this. A child teaching another is not disappointed if the other does not understand or learn, since teaching is not his main work and he is not worried about whether he is or is not a good teacher. He may be exasperated, may even say, "Come on, dummy, pay attention, what's the matter with you?" Since children tend to be direct and blunt with each other anyway, this probably won't bother the learner. If it does, he can say so. Either the other will be more tactful, since he rightly values their friendship more than the effectiveness of his teaching, or the learner will find another helper. And this is another and important reason why children are good at teaching each other. Both child-teacher and child-learner know that this teacher-learner relationship is temporary, much less important than their friendship, in which they meet as equals. This temporary relationship will go on only as long as they are both satisfied with it. The child-teacher doesn't have to teach the other, and the child-learner doesn't have to learn from the other. Since they both come to the relationship freely and by their own choice, they are truly equal partners in it. I want to stress very strongly that the fact that their continuing relationship as friends is more important than their temporary relationship as learner and teacher is above all else what makes this temporary relationship work.
There is an old rule in medicine (not always obeyed): "First, do no harm." In other words, in treating patients, make sure you do not injure them. The rule is just as true for teaching. Above all else, be sure that in your eagerness to make them learn, you do not frighten, offend, insult, or humiliate those you are teaching. Teachers of animals, whether dogs, dolphins, circus animals, or whatever, understand that very well-it is the first rule in their book. It is only among teachers of human beings that many do not understand and even hotly deny this rule.
It is because they understand this rule, if not in words at least in their hearts, that the kind of parents who teach their own children are likely to do it better than anyone else. Such people do not knowingly hurt their children. When they see that something they are doing is hurting their child, they stop, no matter how good may have been their reasons for doing it. They take seriously any signals of pain and distress that their children give them. Of course, the distress signals that children make when we try too hard to teach them something are quite different from the signals they make when something hurts them. Instead of saying "Ow!" they say, "I don't get it," or "This is crazy." It took me years, teaching in classrooms, to learn what those signals were, and still longer to understand how I was causing the distress. But parents teaching at home are in a much better position to learn these distress signals than a classroom teacher. They are not distracted by the problems of managing a class, they know the children better, and their spoken and unspoken languages, and they care about them more. Also, as I have said elsewhere, they can try things out to see what works, and drop whatever does not. Since they control their experience, they can learn more from it.
This is not to say that all families who try to teach their own children will learn to do it well. Some may not. But such families are likely to find homeschooling so unpleasant that they will be glad to give it up, the children most of all. A home-schooling mother wrote me that when, simply out of fear of the schools, she began to give her children a lot of conventional schoolwork, they said, "Look, Mom, if we're going to have to spend all our time doing this school junk, we'd rather do it in school." Quite right. If you are going to have to spend your days doing busywork to relieve adult anxieties, better do it in school, where you only have one-thirtieth of the teacher's anxieties, rather than at home, where you have all of your parent's. So far, only one family I know of has given up home-schooling as a failure, largely because the parents couldn't control their anxieties. In time, there may well be others. I doubt that there will be many.
We can sum up very quickly what people need to teach their own children. First of all, they have to like them, enjoy their company, their physical presence, their energy, foolishness, and passion. They have to enjoy all their talk and questions, and enjoy equally trying to answer those questions. They have to think of their children as friends, indeed very close friends, have to feel happier when they are near and miss them when they are away. They have to trust them as people, respect their fragile dignity, treat them with courtesy, take them seriously. They have to feel in their own hearts some of their children's wonder, curiosity, and excitement about the world. And they have to have enough confidence in themselves, skepticism about experts, and willingness to be different from most people, to take on themselves the responsibility for their children's learning. But that is about all that parents need. Perhaps only a minority of parents have these qualities. Certainly some have more than others. Many will gain more as they know their children better; most of the people who have been teaching their children at home say that it has made them like them more, not less. In any case, these are not qualities that can be taught or learned in a school, or measured with a test, or certified with a piece of paper.
Are there then no requirements of schooling or learning? Isn't there some minimum that people ought to know? Could people teach their children who had never been to school themselves? Even if they didn't know how to read and write? I think even then they probably could. A woman told me not long ago, after a meeting, that though she had a degree from Radcliffe and a Ph.D. from Harvard, the most helpful, influential, and important of all the teachers she had ever had was her mother, who had come to this country as an immigrant and who was illiterate not only here but in the country of her birth. And while working as a consultant to a program to teach adult illiterates to read, I heard about one of the students, a middle-aged woman who had for years concealed her illiteracy from her college graduate husband and her children, whom she used to regularly help with their schoolwork. For many years I told her story to show how cleverly people can bluff and fake. Only recently did I realize that this woman's children would not have come to her year after year for help on their schoolwork unless her help had been helpful. She was in short not just a clever bluffer, but a very good teacher.
I don't expect many illiterate parents to ask me how they can take their children out of school and teach them at home. But if any do, I will say, "I don't think that just because you have not yet learned to read and write means that you can't do a better job of helping your children learn about the world than the schools. But one of the things you are going to have to do in order to help them is learn to read and write. It is easy, if you really want to do it, and once you get out of your head the idea that you can't do it. If any of your children can read and write, they can help you learn. If none of them can read and write, you can learn together. But it is important that you learn. In the first place, if you don't, and the schools find out, there is no way in the world that they or the courts are going to allow you to teach your children at home. In the second place, if you don't know how to read and write, your children are likely to feel that reading and writing are not useful and interesting, or else that they are very difficult, neither of which is true. So learning to read and write will have to be one of your first tasks."
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8. How am I going to teach my child six hours a day?
Who's teaching him six hours a day right now?
As a child, I went to the "best" schools, some public, most private. I was a good student, the kind that teachers like to talk to. And it was a rare day indeed in my schooling when I got fifteen minutes of teaching, that is, of concerned and thoughtful adult talk about something that I found interesting, puzzling, or important. Over the whole of my schooling, the average was probably closer to fifteen minutes a week. For most children in most schools, it is much less than that. Many poor, nonwhite, or unusual kids never get any real teaching at all in their entire schooling. When teachers speak to them, it is only to command, correct, warn, threaten, or blame.
Anyway, children don't need, don't want, and couldn't stand six hours of teaching a day, even if parents wanted to do that much. To help them find out about the world doesn't take that much adult input. Most of what they need, parents have been giving them since they were born. As I have said, they need access. They need a chance, sometimes, for honest, serious, unhurried talk; or sometimes, for joking, play, and foolishness; or sometimes, for tenderness, sympathy, and comfort. They need, much of the time, to share your life, or at least, not to feel shut out of it; in short, to go some of the places you go, to see and do some of the things that interest you, to get to know some of your friends, to find out what you did when you were little and before they were born. They need to have their questions answered, or at least heard and attended to (if you don't know, say "I don't know.") They need to know more and more adults whose main work in life is not taking care of kids. They need some friends their own age, but not dozens of them; two or three, at most half a dozen, is as many real friends as any child can have at one time. Perhaps above all, they need a lot of privacy, solitude, calm times when there's nothing to do.
Schools rarely provide any of these, and even if radically changed, never could provide most of them. But the average parent, family, circle of friends, neighborhood, and community can and do provide all of these things, perhaps not as well as they once did or might again, but well enough. People do not need a Ph.D. or some kind of certificate to help their children find their way into the world.
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9. How are children going to learn what they need to know?
About this, a parent wrote:
... During his early years, my wife and I and a couple of friends taught him all he wanted to know, and if we didn't know it, which usually was the case, it was even better, for we all learned together. Example: at 7, he saw the periodic table of elements, wanted to learn atoms and chemistry and physics. I had forgotten how to balance an equation, but I went out and bought a college textbook on the subject, a history of discovery of the elements, and some model atoms, and in the next month we went off into a tangent of learning in which somehow we both learned college-level science. He has never returned to the subject, but to this day retains every bit of it because it came at a moment in development and fantasy that was meaningful to him. [author's emphasis]
Of course, a child may not know what he may need to know in ten years (who does?), but he knows, and much better than anyone else, what he wants and needs to know right now, what his mind is ready and hungry for. If we help him, or just allow him, to learn that, he will remember it, use it, build on it. If we try to make him learn something else that we think is more important, the chances are that he won't learn it, or will learn very little of it, that he will soon forget most of what he learned, and - what is worst of all - will before long lose most of his appetite for learning anything.
Other parents have asked me similar questions, and to one I wrote:
... With respect to your question, about how a parent could teach something like chemistry, there seem to be a number of possibilities, all of which people have actually done in one place or another. (1) The parent finds a textbook(s), materials, etc., and parent and child learn the stuff together. (2) The parent gets the above for the child, and the child learns it alone. (3) The parent or the child finds someone else who knows this material, perhaps a friend or neighbor, perhaps a teacher in some school or even college, and learns from them.
As for equipment, you say that your high school had a very extensive chem lab, but I'll bet that very few of the students ever used more than a small part of the materials in the lab. I have known kids who were interested in chemistry and did it in their own basements, who were able to do a great deal of work with, at today's prices, less than $200 or maybe $100 worth of equipment. The catalog of the Edmund Scientific Corp. (and many other companies) is full of such equipment. The same thing is true of physics. As for biology, except perhaps in the heart of the city, it is not difficult to find plants and animals for observation and classification, if that is what children want to do.
I won't say these are not problems, but people who want to solve them can solve them.
You ask "Would you expect a parent to purchase test tubes, chemicals, instruments, etc., that would perhaps only be used for one or two years, only to have the child become an artist or musician?" Well, why not? People purchase bicycles, sports equipment, musical instruments, without knowing that their children will ever become professional athletes, musicians, etc. None of this equipment (unless broken) loses any of its value - it could probably be sold later for at least a significant part of the purchase price. And, as time goes on, and more people are teaching their children at home, it will be easier to get these materials from other parents who have used them, or to arrange for swaps, etc.
I see no real need for "institutional" education at any age. There is in Michigan a man named Ovshinsky who stood solid-state physics on its ear by inventing a theory by which non-crystalline substances could be used to do things which, according to orthodox theory, only crystalline materials could do. For a number of years orthodox physicists dismissed Ovshinsky's ideas. But he was able to demonstrate them so clearly in laboratory experiments that they were finally obliged to admit that he was right. Ovshinsky never finished high school. There are probably more cases like this than we know, and there would be a great many more except for compulsory schooling laws. It is a kind of Catch-22 situation to say, first, that all children have to spend all that time in schools, and then to say that all kinds of things can only be learned in schools. How do we know? Where have we given people a chance to learn them somewhere else?
A very important function of institutions of so-called higher learning is not so much to teach people things as to limit access to certain kinds of learning and work. The function of law schools is much less to train lawyers than to keep down the supply of lawyers. Practically everything that is now only done by people with Ph.D.s was, not so very long ago, done by people with no graduate training or in some cases, even undergraduate training.
I hope you will not doubt your competence to help your children learn anything they want to learn, or indeed their competence to learn many things without your help.
One mother wrote me some particularly challenging questions [10-17], to which I gave these answers:
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10. My greatest concern is that I don't want to slant my children's view of life all through "mother-colored " glasses. . .
If you mean, determine your children's view of life, you couldn't do it even if you wanted to. You are an influence on your children, and an important one, but by no means the only one, or even the only important one. How they later see the world is going to be determined by a great many things, many of them probably not to your liking, and most of them out of your control. On the other hand, it would be impossible, even if you wanted to, not to have some influence on your children's view of life.
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11. I also wonder if I can have the thoroughness, the follow-through demanded, the patience, and the continuing enthusiasm for the diversity of interests they will undoubtedly have.
Well, who in any school would have more, or even as much? I was a good student in the "best" schools, and very few adults there were even slightly concerned with my interests. Beyond that, you may expect too much of yourself. Your children's learning is not all going to come from you, but from them, and their interaction with the world around them, which of course includes you. You do not have to know everything they want to know, or be interested in everything they are interested in. As for patience, maybe you won't have enough at first; like many home-teaching parents, you may start by trying to do too much, know too much, control too much. But like the rest, you will learn, from experience mostly, to trust your children.
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12. Most unschoolers seem to live on farms growing their own vegetables (which I'd like) or have unique life-styles in urban areas, and heavy father participation in children's education. What about suburbanites with modern-convenienced homes and fathers who work for a company 10 to 12 hours a day away from home? What differences will this make? Will unschooling work as well?
Well enough. You and your children will have to find out as you go along what differences they make, and deal with them as best you can. Once, people said that the suburbs were the best of all possible worlds in which to bring up children; now it is the fashion to say they are the worst. Both views are exaggerated. In city, country, or suburb, there is more than enough to give young people an interesting world to grow up in, plenty of food for thought and action. You don't have to have every resource for your children, and if you did, they wouldn't have enough time to make use of all of them. As for the father's involvement, it can certainly be helpful, but it is not crucial. Some of the most successful unschoolers we know of are single mothers.
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13. What if the children want to go to school?
This is a hard question. There is more than one good answer to it, and these often conflict. Parents could argue, and some do, that since they believe that school can and probably will do their children deep and lasting harm, they have as much right to keep them out, even if they want to go, as they would to tell them they could not play on a pile of radioactive waste. This argument seems more weighty in the case of younger children, who could not be expected to understand how school might hurt them. If somewhat older children said determinedly and often, and for good reasons, that they really wanted to go to school, I would tend to say, let them go. How much older? What are good reasons? I don't know. A bad reason might be, "The other kids tell me that at school lunch you can have chocolate milk."
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14. I'm concerned that someone might be eager to take us to court and take away our children.
The schools have in a number of cases tried - shamefully - to take children away from unschooling parents. I think there are legal counters to this, strategies that would make it highly unlikely that a court would take such action. And if worse came to worst, and a court said, "Put your children back in school or we'll take them away," you can always put them back in while you plan what to do next - which might simply be to move to another state or even school or judicial district. [Note: homeschooling is now legal in all US states and Canadian provinces, and in many other countries, due in no small part to John Holt's work and writing, and to the support and work of the organization he founded, John Holt Associates.]
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15. I don't want to feel I'm sheltering my children or running away from adversity.
Why not? It is your right, and your proper business, as parents, to shelter your children and protect them from adversity, at least as much as you can. Many of the world's children are starved or malnourished, but you would not starve your children so that they would know what this was like. You would not let your children play in the middle of a street full of high-speed traffic. Your business is, as far as you can, to help them realize their human potential, and to that end you put as much as you can of good into their lives, and keep out as much as you can of bad. If you think - as you do - that school is bad, then it is clear what you should do.
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16. I value their learning how to handle challenges or problems. . .
There will be plenty of these. Growing up was probably never easy, and it is particularly hard in a world as anxious, confused, and fear-ridden as ours. To learn to know oneself, and to find a life worth living and work worth doing, is problem and challenge enough, without having to waste time on the fake and unworthy challenges of school - pleasing the teacher, staying out of trouble, fitting in with the gang, being popular, doing what everyone else does.
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17. Will they have the opportunity to overcome or do things that they think they don't want to do?
I'm not sure what this question means. If it means, will unschooled children know what it is to have to do difficult and demanding things in order to reach goals they have set for themselves, I would say, yes, life is full of such requirements. But this is not at all the same thing as doing something, and in the case of school usually something stupid and boring, simply because someone else tells you you'll be punished if you don't. Whether children resist such demands or yield to them, it is bad for them. Struggling with the inherent difficulties of a chosen or inescapable task builds character; merely submitting to superior force destroys it.
Excerpted and reprinted with permission of Holt Associates, copyright 1997.
Reprinting of any part of this chapter is allowed only by the express written permission of Holt Associates. For inquiries, write to holtgws@erols.com.
Originally published as Chapter 2, Teach Your Own: A Hopeful Path for Education. New York: Delacorte Press, 1981.
Ordering Information
To order the new edition of Teach Your Own (catalog #3378), send $16.95 plus $4.50 shipping and handling to:
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About the Author
John Holt (1923-1985), writer and leading figure in educational reform, wrote ten books, including How Children Fail, How Children Learn, Never Too Late, and Learning All the Time. His work has been translated into fourteen languages. How Children Learn, and its companion volume, How Children Fail, have together sold over two million copies in their many editions and influenced a generation of teachers and parents. His letters have been collected and published under the title, A Life Worth Living. John Holt's deep insights into the child's mind have become increasingly appreciated as we try to make both schools and homes better places for children to learn.
Biographical note to How Children Learn, Revised Edition, Reading, Massacusetts: Addison-Wesley Publishing Co., 1995.John Holt's work is being continued by Holt Associates:
Holt/GWS2380 Massachusetts Ave. Suite 104Cambridge, MA 02140(617) 864-3100
"I have come to understand, finally, and even to accept, that in almost everything I believe and care about, I am a member of a minority in my own country. This is certainly true of all my ideas about children and education. We who do not believe in compulsory schooling, who believe that children want to learn about the world, are good at it, and can be trusted to do it, without much adult coercion and interference, are surely not more than one per cent of the population and perhaps much less than that. This doesn't trouble me any more, as long as those minorities of which I am a member go on growing. My work is to help them grow."
- John Holt,Growing Without Schooling, 1977, Issue 1.



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